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Pope Alexander VI natal chart (Placidus) natal chart English style (Equal houses) natal chart with Whole Sign houses. While his religious convictions cannot be challenged, scandal accompanied his activities throughout his career. Pope Alexander VI dispensing justice in artwork by Zacarías González Velázquez. Shortly afterwards he induced Alphonso d'Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, to marry her, thus establishing her as heiress to one of the most important principalities in Italy (January 1502). Pope Alexander VIII (22 April 1610 – 1 February 1691), born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. Like many other prelates of the day, his morals were infamous, his two dominant passions being greed of gold and love of women, and he was devoted to the ten known children his mistresses bore him. On his return to Rome (June 1501) Cesare was created duke of Romagna. Charles VIII of France now advanced formal claims on the kingdom, and Alexander VI drew him to his side and authorized him to pass through Rome ostensibly on a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, without mentioning Naples. It is strongly suspected that Cesare inadvertently poisoned his father and himself with wine laced with cantarella (white arsenic) that he probably had intended to use on others,[4] although some sources (including the Encyclopædia Britannica) doubt the stories about poison and attribute the deaths to malaria, at that time very prevalent in Rome. According to Burchard, Alexander VI's stomach became swollen and turned to liquid, while his face became wine-colored and his skin began to peel off. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article The expedition, if it produced no material results, demonstrated the foolishness of the so called 'politics of equilibrium' (The Medicean doctrine of preventing one of the Italian principates to overwhelm and unite the rest under its hegemony); since it rendered the country unable to face the ingerences of the powerful 'Nation States' that forged themselves in the previous century (France, Spain). But while a crusade was talked of, the real object was central Italy, and in the autumn, Cesare, favored by France and Venice, set forth with 10,000 men to complete his interrupted enterprise. Fourteen years after his death, the corruption of the papacy that Alexander VI exemplified - particularly the sale of indulgences - would prompt a young monk by the name of Martin Luther to nail a summary of his grievances on the door of a church in Germany and laun… As cardinal, Rodrigo Borgia set the tone for his future papacy, participating in elaborate orgies that resembled his later pièce de résistance of sex parties, the Banquet of the Chestnuts. For the dukes of Gandia and Giuffre the Pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the kingdom of Naples. cit.) 6943005, citing Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli, Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy ; Maintained by Find A Grave . To offer them an alternative prey, he engineered an alliance against the Ottomans with the real aim of getting the French out of Italy. At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked black for the house of Borgia. Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father wished him to assist Giuffre in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to Alexander VI's annoyance, but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano. He served in the Curia under five Popes (Calixtus III, Pius II, Paul II, Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII) and acquired much administrative experience, influence and wealth, although no great power. In order to consolidate his possessions still further, now that French success seemed assured, the Pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided up into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan, and Florence cast hungry eyes. Burchard recorded the events that surrounded the death of the Pope. Noté /5. Quart.Review, April, 1900.] His father was Jofre Lançol. For many of his misdeeds his terrible son Cesare was responsible, but of others the pope cannot be acquitted. Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. The Sultan's brother, a hostage, had actually been one of his court favorites. Juan was murdered; Cesare's ruthlessness inspired Machiavelli's The Prince; Jofré was wed to an Aragonese princess who reportedly carried on affairs with his brothers; and Lucrezia was a central figure in Italian court intrigues. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. Alexander VII. The document supported Spain’s strategy to ensure its exclusive right to the lands discovered by Columbus the previous year. Alexander VI appealed to Ascanio Sforza for help, and even to the Sultan. The process was a simple one: any cardinal, nobleman or official who was known to be rich would be accused of some offense; imprisonment and perhaps murder followed at once, and then the confiscation of his property. In June 1502 he seized Camerino and Urbino, the news of which capture filled the pope with childish joy. The infamous Borgias were Spanish nobles who attained power and wealth in Spain and across the Italian peninsula during the Renaissance by securing high-ranking civic and ecclesiastical offices. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Alexander_VI&oldid=1018667, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Tragedy struck the papal household on June 14, 1497, when Alexander’s favourite son, Juan, was murdered. Famous for his nepotism, his immoral life and his bull of 4.5.1493, through which he divided the new world between Spain and Portugal. Alexander VI. By a Roman noblewoman, Vannozza Catanei, he had four subsequently legitimized offspring—Juan, Cesare, Jofré, and Lucrezia—whose complicated careers troubled his pontificate. Rodrigo was a skillful politician, and it didn’t take him long to accumulate enough wealth to rig a papal election. Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleuterus Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark, Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus IIILeo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius IJohn III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I, Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene IVitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory IIIZachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II, Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Leo VIII Benedict V John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV, John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III, Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII, Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX, Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul IIBenedict XVI. Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) was, it is almost universally agreed, the nadir of the papacy. But the rest of the clan still held out, and the papal troops sent against them under Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino and the duke of Gandia, were defeated at Soriano (January 1497). View the profiles of people named Pope Alexander VI. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. Cath. He was reputed to have committed his first murder at the age of twelve.[1]. He is one of the most controversial figures in the history of papacy. After his uncle's election as Pope he was created successively bishop, Cardinal and vice-chancellor of the church, an act of nepotism characteristic of the age. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The story of Alexander VI's relations with Savonarola is told in that article; it is enough to say here that the Pope's hostility was due to the friar's outspoken invectives against papal corruption and to his appeals for a General Council. Alexander VI carried on a double policy, always ready to seize opportunities to aggrandize his family. The general political outlook in Italy was of the gloomiest, and the country was on the eve of the catastrophe of foreign invasion. Rodrigo was born into the Spanish branch of the prominent and powerful Borgia family. By a ruthless policy of siege and assassination, Cesare brought the north of Italy under his control; he conquered the duchies of Romagna, Umbria, and Emilia and earned the admiration of Niccolò Machiavelli, who used Cesare as the model for his classic on politics, The Prince. He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage with Sforza in 1497, and, unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of Frederick, King of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II the previous year), he induced the latter by threats to agree to a marriage between the duke of Bisceglie, a natural son of Alphonso II, and Lucrezia. His position was menaced by the French king Charles VIII, who invaded Italy in 1494 to vindicate his claim to the Kingdom of Naples. At a meeting of church officials held in August 1492, the sixty-one-year-old Borgia was elected pope. Alexander had shown great forbearance in dealing with the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola, who usurped political control in Florence in 1494, condemned the evils of the papal court, and called for the pope’s deposition, and, even before the friar’s downfall in May 1498, theologians and men of affairs had expressed support for the papacy. Finally his stomach and bowels bled profusely. Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated, and a great step achieved towards consolidating the Borgia's power. Appointed by Calixtus to the College of Cardinals at the age of 26, he was one of many of Calixtus' relatives from Spain who were invited to take up important and lucrative posts in Rome. Pope Alexander VI 1431 – 1503), born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja was Pope from 1492 to 1503. Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia), Pope between 1492 - 1503. About this time a Borgia of doubtful parentage was born, Giovanni, described in some papal documents as Alexander VI's son and in others as Cesare's. Alexander's rapidly decomposing body was shuttled around Rome before a team of workers pummeled his corpse into a too-small coffin. The disorganization of the Curia was appalling, the sale of offices became a veritable scandal, the least opposition to the Borgia was punished with death, and even in that corrupt age the state of things shocked public opinion. The office he held should have given the Catholic world spiritual leadership; instead, he used it to promote his family's interests and to show kings that earthly treasure is to be accumulated and enjoyed. During his pontificate the Church was brought to its lowest level of degradation. On April 8th, 1455, shortly after being made a cardinal, Alfons … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Pope, ever in need of money, now created twelve new cardinals, from whom he received 120,000 ducats, and fresh conquests for Cesare were considered. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his surname (Italianized as Borgia) became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. Find the perfect Pope Alexander Vi stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Alexander's successor on the Throne of Saint Peter, Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, who assumed the name of Pope Pius III (1503), forbade the saying of a Mass for the repose of Alexander VI's soul, saying, "It is blasphemous to pray for the damned." Divided the New World for Portugal, Spain. Alexander VI's diplomacy, however, turned the tide, and Cesare, in exchange for promising to assist the French in the south, was given a free hand in central Italy. He began his career as a vice- papal legate, and he held various diplomatic positions in the Holy See. On the 28th, Charles VIII departed for Naples with Cem and Cesare, but the latter escaped to Spoleto. He is one of the most controversial figures in the history of papacy. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503) created 43 new cardinals in 9 consistories: Juan de Borja Lanzol (Llançol) de Romaní, el mayor 31 August 1492. But through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and also with the Orsini; the peace was cemented by a marriage between the Pope's son Giuffre and Doña Sancha, Ferdinand II's granddaughter. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. The French army proceeded to invade Naples, and Alexander VI took the opportunity, with the help of the Orsini, to reduce the Colonna to obedience. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Rodrigo Borgia, the baby boy who would become Pope Alexander VI, one of the most infamous Popes of all time, was born in Valencia, Spain on New Year's Day in 1431. No stranger to The condition of his subjects was deplorable, and if Cesare's rule in Romagna was an improvement on that of the local tyrants, the people of Rome have seldom been more oppressed than under the Borgia. Quart.Review, April, 1900.] On August 18, 1503 Alexander VI died at the age of 72. Alexander VI agreed to send Cesare, as legate, to Naples with the French army, to deliver Cem to Charles VIII and to give him Civitavecchia (January 16, 1495). Faced by these forces, Charles, leaving behind some of his troops in garrison, decided to return home. This page is dedicated to honoring his pontificate (1492 - 1503). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. About Cardinal Ferrari's death there is more doubt; he probably died of fever, but Alexander VI immediately confiscated his goods. Játiva, Spain, with biography. Pope Alexander VI Rodrigo de Borja. While still a teenager, Alexander was granted a title and income from the Roman Catholic Church by his uncle Alonso (later Pope Calixtus III). He encountered the allies at the Battle of Fornovo, and after a drawn fight cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards, though with Spanish help. For one, he had a bunch of children. The papal states were in turmoil, and the powerful Colonna faction seized Ostia in the name of France. His uncle, Alfonso Borgia, was a cardinal, and his parents decided early in his life that Rodrigo was destined to join his uncle in the Catholic Church. Alexander VI, original Spanish name in full Rodrigo de Borja y Doms, Italian Rodrigo Borgia, (born 1431, Játiva, near Valencia [Spain]—died August 18, 1503, Rome), corrupt, worldly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his surname (Italianized as Borgia) became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position, but fearing himself isolated he sought help from Charles VIII of France (1483–98). On August 18, 1503 Alexander VI died at the age of 72. Join Facebook to connect with Pope Alexander VI and others you may know. As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo, the husband of his granddaughter Isabella, Alexander VI encouraged the French king in his plan for the conquest of N… Burchard records that he had to jump on the body to jam him into the coffin and covered it with an old carpet, the only surviving furnishing in the room. He still refused to support the king’s claim to Naples and, by an alliance with Milan, Venice, and the Holy Roman emperor, eventually forced the French to withdraw from Italy. Alexander VI was an extremely intelligent man that enjoyed luxury and excess in all aspects of his life. Burchard recorded the events that surrounded the death of the Pope. Both France and various Italian principalities represented real threats. His reign began well. In 1431, Lanzol y Borja born in Xàtiva, which is near Valencia in Spain. Instead of focusing on spiritual matters, Alexander was more concerned with material wealth and earthly power. Alexander VI availed himself of the defeat of the French to break the power of the Orsini, following the general tendency of all the princes of the day to crush the great feudatories and establish a centralized despotism. V) (Italian: Alessandro V) was a pope elected by the Council of Pisa during the Western Schism (1378–1417). An example of the extreme levels of corruption and immorality then present in the papacy was the Banquet of Chestnuts, also known as the Joust of the Whores, an episode famous in the history of pornography. A characteristic instance of the papal court of the time is the fact that Borgia's daughter Lucrezia lived with his mistress Giulia, who bore him a daughter Laura in 1492. Cesare was preparing for another expedition into central Italy in July 1503, when, in the midst of all these projects and negotiations, both he and his father were taken ill with fever. ( Public domain ) Corruption and Excess of the Papal Court Under Alexander VI . The city swarmed with Spanish adventurers, assassins, prostitutes and informers; murder and robbery were committed with impunity, and the Pope himself shamelessly cast aside all show of decorum, living a purely secular and immoral life, and indulging in the chase, dancing, stage plays and indecent orgies. He rarely if ever gave a thought to the poor, or to the rights of the Amer-Indians, whose lands he gave away to Spain and Portugal ("Papal Bull Inter Caetera May 4, 1493"). Are known collectively as the bulls of Donation behind some of these related to the top of the see! Born in Xàtiva, which is near Valencia in Spain ( born Rodrigo Borgia ) was... 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