brittleness science definition

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(2010). Gaskell, David R. (1995). FRC is also suitable for minimizing cavitation/erosion damage in structures such as sluice-ways, navigational locks and bridge piers where high-velocity flows are encountered. Some of these alloys are single crystals, while others are polycrystals. Ribeiro Borges, in Advanced Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Structural Applications, 2013. This is a consequence of the spontaneous and rapid crack propagation. There are fractures (e.g. Irradiation embrittlement can lead to loss of fracture toughness. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 2 and 2. Therefore, the DBTT is of significance in the operation of these vessels. whereby a material will fracture without appreciable prior plastic deformation; Brittleness is lack of ductility and for a brittle material there is no plastic deformation. Synonyms for brittleness in Free Thesaurus. Stress-corrosion cracking may cause, for example, a failure of nuclear fuel rod after inappropriate power changes, rod movement and plant startup. Crouch, in The Science of Armour Materials, 2017. The temperature above which a material is ductile and below which it is brittle is known as the ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT), nil ductility temperature (NDT), or nil ductility transition temperature. What does brittleness mean? We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Most of inorganic non-metallic materials are brittle materials. Their brittle point is the highest temperature at which a plastic or elastomer fractures in a prescribed impact test procedure. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Introduction of fibres into brittle matrices usually results in changes in the post-elastic properties, which can range from subtle to substantial, depending upon a number of factors. (1974) and (Frew et al., 2010), or a dynamic load cell, as used by Rome et al. The process is characterized by erosion rates up to several hundred micrometers per minute using 30 μm alumina particles. As will be learnt in Chapter 7, in order to maximise the effectiveness of having a hard strike face material, it needs to remain rigid for as long as possible. One of possible causes is also the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), which may be caused by stress-corrosion cracking. This condition limits performance to a point far less than the yield strength of the fibre itself. Brittle materials, such as glass, cannot accommodate concentrations of stress Parasitic because of the reduction in toughness through precipitation processes, causing susceptibility to ageing and blue brittleness (deformation in the blue heat range of 300-350 °C) and on account of the possibility of initiation of intercrystalline stress cracks in unalloyed and low alloy steels. There are lots of 'definitions' of brittleness in the literature. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. Because the solubility of hydrogen increases at higher temperatures, raising the temperature can increase the diffusion of hydrogen. Easily damaged or disrupted; fragile: a brittle friendship. 2 synonyms for brittleness: crispiness, crispness. the quality of being brittle 2. metallurgy the tendency of a metal to break without being significantly distorted or exposed to a high level of stress Compare toughness (sense 2), softness … González-Viñas, W. & Mancini, H.L. Hydrogen migrates under the effect of the thermal gradient to accumulate in the less hot regions, forming hydrides that are liable to cause brittleness in the cladding, as the fuel cools down. Ribeiro Borges, in, Advanced Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Structural Applications, Shah and Ribakov, 2011; Pacheco-Torgal and Jalali, 2011. The synthetic fibres have been employed mostly to maximize prevention of corrosion in concrete structures. The categories of employed fibres are steel, alkali-resistant glass, synthetic, and natural fibres materials. (1972), Lindholm et al. This is perhaps an unnecessarily restrictive term: any flaw or defect in the structure can act as a crack in the Griffith sense. A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. Brittleness: as in crumbliness, friability. On the other hand, many high-strength metals (e.g. T.H. There is a great variety of fibre-reinforced mortar and concrete formulations, depending on particular applications. Butterworth-Heinemann. Specimens of such materials fracture without appreciable material yielding. At nuclear reactor facilities, the term “hydrogen embrittlement” generally refers to the embrittlement of zirconium alloys caused by zirconium hydriding. Of course, that plastic deformation itself requires work, and if the attempt were made to calculate surface energy from the total work of fracture, serious errors would be made. However, there is a possibility that when the reactor is being shut down or during an abnormal cooldown, the temperature may fall below the DBTT value while the internal pressure is still high. January 1993. Find another word for brittleness. The cracks can follow intergranular or transgranular paths, and there is often a tendency for crack branching. SCC is a type of intergranular attack corrosion that occurs at the grain boundaries under tensile stress. The ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is the temperature at which the fracture energy passes below a predetermined value (e.g. brittleness - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. However, for ductile fracture, the presence of plastic deformation gives warnin… One of possible causes is also: The aggressive agent in this respect is primary circuit water, at a temperature of some 300° C. This oxidizes zirconium according to the reaction: resulting in formation of solid oxide on the metal’s surface. brittle fracture), which occur under specific conditions without warning and can cause major damage to materials. It tends to propagate as stress opens cracks that are subject to corrosion, which are then corroded further, weakening the metal by further cracking. The brittleness and low ductility of many if not all polycrystalline L12 intermetallic compounds restrict their use for engineering applications. It is possible to distinguish some common characteristics among the stress–strain curves of various groups of materials. (1974) developed a triaxial SHPB experiment by adding a pressure vessel to the test section of a standard SHPB. Find more ways to say brittleness, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. That technology, known as the Hatschek, Magnani or Mannville processes, started about 1900 and has been widely used in construction materials for many years. Loss of ductility noted for some steels when heated to 400-600°F , the blue heat range. D. Ruan, ... I.G. Fig. Exemplos: la mesa, una tabla. HEARN Ph.D., B.Sc. I.G. Another word for brittleness. Darvell DSc CChem CSci FRSC FIM FSS FADM, in Materials Science for Dentistry (Tenth Edition), 2018. Cladding prevents radioactive fission products from escaping the fuel matrix into the reactor coolant and contaminating it. In general, the length and diameter of the fibres used for fibre-reinforced concrete do not exceed 3 in. 2) Such a failure is found to occur, experimentally, after from one to a few minutes’ holding time, at sustained high power levels. A major exception is reinforced plastics. In case of steels, hydrogen than diffuses along the grain boundaries and combines with the carbon to form methane gas. Figure 13.10. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. Most common steels, for example, are quite ductile and hence can accommodate local stress concentrations. The ACI report (2002) defines fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) as concrete made of hydraulic cements containing fine or fine and coarse aggregates mixed with discontinuous discrete fibres. This pressure would separate the interfaces. Engineers need to understand fracture mechanisms. The elastic stage is followed by immediate fracture. • Determination of brittleness from the percentage of reversible work: wh… From that moment on, the fibre reinforcement takes over and holds the concrete together. What we mean, therefore, by the strength of a material must be carefully considered: it is not a substance strength (this would have no meaning, Introduction Fig. The challenge is to provide maximum support to the strike face material by using a backing material that has a high modulus like steel (where E = 208 GPa) with the density of a polymer (where ρ < 1, preferably), whilst at the same time creating a sound metallurgical bond between the two elements (strike face and backing). Impacted or vibrated by stress, a material is able to absorb much energy and deform greatly without rupture, which is known as toughness, also called impact toughness. U.S. Department of Energy, Material Science. (1972) and Lindholm et al. Brittleness is a significant property considered in product design and the research and development of materials. Brittle material breaks while little to no energy is absorbed when stressed. Brittle fracture is based on the idea that the presence of cracks determines the brittle strength and crack propagation occurs. Brittle materials are characterized by little deformation, poor capacity to resist impact and vibration of load, high compressive strength, and low tensile strength. However, a modified SHPB can be used to conduct simultaneous axial and lateral loading to a specimen. In the tensile test, the fracture point is the point of strain where the material physically separates. (76 mm) and 0.04 in. There are fractures (e.g. Fig. SCC is highly chemically specific in that certain alloys are likely to undergo SCC only when exposed to a small number of chemical environments. A two-ply laminate is therefore essential. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Tough materials should be used in the structures bearing impact and vibration, such as roads, bridges, cranes and beams. Brittle twigs snapped under our feet. All Free. Hucka and Das (1974) summarize different formulation of brittleness such as: • Determination of brittleness from percentage of reversible strain: where ϵel is the reversible elastic strain and the ϵtotalis the total strain. Ductility, Capacity of a material to deform permanently (e.g., stretch, bend, or spread) in response to stress. If a ductile material reaches its ultimate tensile strength in a load-controlled situation, it will continue to deform, with no additional load application, until it ruptures. Copyright 2021 Nuclear Power for Everybody | All Rights Reserved | Powered by, Stress-corrosion Cracking as Fuel Failure Mechanism, Hydrogen Embrittlement of Zirconium Alloys, Interaction of Beta Radiation with Matter, Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter, high temperature steam oxidation of zirconium alloys, Khmelnitsky expansion part of European 'renaissance', says Energoatom chief, Nuclear stands out as clean, dispatchable firm power, says Kwarteng, Stress sufficient to develop a small deformation at the crack tip, Low toughness region: Main failure mode is the, High toughness region: Main failure mode is the, removing critical environmental species such as hydroxides, chlorides, and oxygen. At this point, the strain reaches its maximum value and the material actually fractures, even though the corresponding stress may be less than the ultimate strength at this point. Most of the materials that have brittleness are normally ceramics, glass and cold metals. Circles drawn tangent to this envelope then represent the condition of failure at the point of tangency. (fragility, liability to break) fragilidad nf nombre femenino: Sustantivo de género exclusivamente femenino, que lleva los artículos la o una en singular, y las o unas en plural. The material fractures with no plastic deformation. In this case, the size of the grain determines the properties of the metal. Photographs showing complex metal parts that can be fabricated by microabrasion. (Eng.) Brittleness describes the property of a material that fractures when subjected to stress but has a little tendency to deform before rupture. It is not likely that the DBTT will approach the normal operating temperature of the steel. The most effective additive to eliminate brittleness is B. The first chamber was used to employ a hydrostatic pressure on the specimen. The measurement of brittleness has not been standardized. In Fig. Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which steel loses its ductility and strength due to tiny cracks that result from the internal pressure of hydrogen (H2), which forms at the grain boundaries. SCC can lead to unexpected sudden failure of normally ductile metal alloys subjected to a tensile stress, especially at elevated temperature. For concrete, the typical fibre aspect ratios used range from 30 to 150 for fibres lengths of 0.25–3.0 in (6.3–76.2 mm) (Majumdar, 1975). Materials with this property have elastic proportionality in stress and strain. A failure condition is then indicated when the stress circle for a particular complex stress condition is found to cut the envelope. Failure behavior is characteristic of that for a brittle material, even though the metal alloy is intrinsically ductile. brittleness n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. avoiding stagnant areas and crevices in heat exchangers where chloride and hydroxide might become concentrated. January 1993. Brittle materials in general show little ability to deform plastically and hence will usually fracture at, or very near to, the elastic limit. The main role of fibres is to bridge the cracks that develop in concrete and increase the ductility of concrete elements. U.S. Department of Energy, Material Science. Special Reference: CEA, Nuclear Energy Division. This website does not use any proprietary data. It has been stated previously, however, that brittle materials are usually considerably stronger in compression than in tension and to allow for this Mohr has proposed a construction based on his stress circle in the application of the maximum shear stress theory. In addition, other enhanced properties are observed, such as tensile and compressive strength, elastic modulus, crack resistance, crack control, flatigue life, impact and abrasion resistance, shrinkage, expansion, thermal characteristics and fire resistance (ACI report, 2002). In conclusion, and taking into account remarks made in §6 about the uncertainty of mode of failure, we can see that strength tests in general of more or less brittle materials may be described as determining the nominal stress leading to a critical flaw-dependent collapse. Main purpose of this project is to help the public learn some interesting and important information about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. tlest 1. a. (1974), High performance fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) for civil engineering applications, T.H. The incorporation of fibres into the cement matrix is labour intensive and costs more than the production of the plain concrete. Ductility is an essential requirement for steels used in the construction of reactor components, such as the reactor vessel. Depending on the fibre categories, the reinforced concrete may exhibit high permeability, which can lead to carbonation and chloride ion attack, resulting in corrosion problems (Glasser et al., 2008; Bentur and Mitchell, 2008). It is important to note that concrete reinforcing bars have a rough surface, which helps adhesion to the paste and mechanical bonding. In the meantime, however, other fibre-reinforced composites have been developed. Part of the hydrogen produced by the corrosion of zirconium in water combines with the zirconium to form a separate phase of zirconium hydride (ZrH1.5) platelets. Princeton University Press. so, corrosion of steel reinforcement or potential deterioration of concrete may be reduced with the addition of a variety of fibres to the Portland cement matrices. What are synonyms for brittleness? This is a consequence of the spontaneous and rapid crack propagation. brittle behaviour The manner in which competent rocks lose their internal cohesion along certain surfaces when the elastic limit is exceeded under an applied stress. Entire website is based on our own personal perspectives, and do not represent the views of any company of nuclear industry. Perfectly brittle materials are nevertheless very rare (if not actually impossible – see 29§2), the great majority of materials showing some appreciable plastic deformation at the crack tip even if generally appearing to be quite brittle. Likely to break, snap, or crack, as when subjected to pressure: brittle bones. Placing an additional layer in front of the ceramic can also influence the ballistic performance of brittle materials. Brittle materials exhibit tensile S-S behaviors different from the usual S-S curves. The effect of C and O cannot be disregarded since they were detected in grain boundaries with the possibility of inducing grain boundary brittleness. ), but if this is taken to an extreme, fracture becomes the more likely outcome, and the material can become brittle. They lack toughness. In this case the corrosive agent is hydrogen in its atomic form (H as opposed to the molecular form, H2), which diffuses interstitially through the crystal lattice, and concentrations as low as several parts per million can lead to cracking. in all cases, the most convenient numerical parameter to describe a fibre is the aspect ratio, i.e. An envelope to these curves, shown dotted, then represents the failure envelope according to the Mohr theory. Brittleness describes the property of a material that fractures when subjected to stress but has a little tendency to deform before rupture. This is a consequence of the spontaneous and rapid crack propagation. Find out information about Blue Brittleness. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1. There are various fuel failure root causes, that have been identified in past. Brittle definition, having hardness and rigidity but little tensile strength; breaking readily with a comparatively smooth fracture, as glass. The area under the curve represents the energy that the FRC absorbed when subjected to tensile load, usually described as the ‘post-cracking response’ of FRC. Meaning of brittleness. The vessels were constructed of a steel alloy that possessed adequate toughness according to room-temperature tensile tests. An Introduction to Materials Science. are also used for reinforcement. However, for ductile fracture, the presence of plastic deformation gives warning that failure is imminent, allowing preventive measures to be taken. 2) You may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. For hydrogen embrittlement to occur, a combination of three conditions are required: In zirconium alloys, hydrogen embrittlement is caused by zirconium hydriding. It expresses the strength of a material in terms of crack length and fracture surface energy. For example, smaller grain size increases tensile strength, tends to increase ductility and results in a decrease in DBTT. Any of the so-called “yield criteria” introduced above, therefore, will normally imply fracture of a brittle material. Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials (4th ed.). (1mm), respectively (Ohama, 1989; ACI, 2002). It must be noted that low-strength FCC metals (e.g. Source for information on brittle behaviour: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. Those factors include matrix strength, type and amount of fibre, fibre strength and orientation, among others. crisp is used of … A naturally malleable metal can be made stronger by impeding the mechanisms of plastic deformation (reducing grain size, dispersion strengthening, work hardening, etc. Low alloy steels are less susceptible than high alloy steels, but they are subject to SCC in water containing chloride ions. Brittle fracture occurs suddenly and catastrophically without any warning. Brittleness can result from different conditions such as from drying, plasticizer migration, etc. A brittle strength of … ISBN 978-1-4000-4760-4. Each of these types of test can be performed to failure relatively easily in the laboratory. Hons., C.Eng., F.I.Mech.E., F.I.Prod.E., F.I.Diag.E., in, Laminated materials and layered structures, B.W. It results in fracture rate of decreased elastically stored energy that at least equals the rate of formation of the fracture surface energy due to the creation of new surfaces. Brittleness describes the property of a material that fractures when subjected to stress but has a little tendency to deform before rupture. In the early dates of PWR and BWR operations, these causes were predominantly fabrication defects or fretting. The material in the figure below marked with (a) shows what a brittle material will look like after pulling on a cylinder of that material. brittle fracture), which occur under specific conditions without warning and can cause major damage to materials. Plastics that are brittle frequently have lower impact strength and higher stiffness properties. 1.2), but it refers to the effect of substance and structure in combination: the term ‘material’ must subsume all such aspects. §6), and the corresponding theoretical critical shear stress is about 8 times larger than the critical tensile stress, i.e. 13.10) [14]. Fibres may be inert or reactive; their inertness or reactivity with the matrices will determine the bonding characteristics of fibre-reinforced composites (Brown et al., 2002; Shah and Ribakov, 2011). It gives a brief definition of each concept and its relationships. This transitional temperature is of the highest importance during plant heatup. Why Things Break: Understanding the World by the Way It Comes Apart. Definition of brittleness in the Definitions.net dictionary. In addition, laser machining leaves burrs on the surface of the parts, requiring further acid chemical cleaning to produce the final finish. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Brittle fracture occurs suddenly and catastrophically without any warning. Metals, on the other hand, are ductile (that is, they deform and bend when subjected to… Simplified Mohr theory on σ–τ axes. ISBN 978-0-7506-8391-3. Brittle fracture occurs suddenly and catastrophically without any warning. Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. Antonyms for brittleness. The brittle fractures occurred at relatively low ambient temperatures, at about 4°C (40°F), in the vicinity of the transition temperature of the alloy. By employing boron nitride or diamond powders with a special multinozzle assembly, the microabrasive system has been used to precisely fabricate burr-free complex parts directly from 100 μm thick Mo or Mo-Re foil (Fig. brittle is used of something that is hard and dry. 2. a. From: Building Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011, In Building Materials in Civil Engineering, 2011. This can be only an approximate guide because in practice other factors may play a part, depending on the material, but it appears to be a generally valid approximation. b. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley; 9 edition (December 4, 2013), ISBN-13: 978-1118324578. Taylor and Francis Publishing. the total energy absorbed prior to complete failure (Brown et al., 2002). Thus porosity, an unbonded interface between a filler particle and a resin matrix, a weak grain boundary in metals, or even a weak inclusion in a structure, and in the limit just one missing bond, can each act as a flaw in this sense. Naturally occurring asbestos fibres and a wide range of vegetable fibres (e.g. The discussion above has been in terms of cracks. It does not have to be a real crack as it might ordinarily be understood, i.e. Hydrogen embrittlement is also of very high importance for high temperature steam oxidation of zirconium alloys. 2), softness (def. the quality of being brittle metallurgy the tendency of a metal to break without being significantly distorted or exposed to a high level of stressCompare toughness (def. The employment of fibres to reinforce brittle materials dates from the Egyptian and Babylonian era. Other applications comprise lightweight structures, where relatively thin FRC elements have the equivalent strength of thicker plain concrete. ISBN 978-0-691-07097-1. Hons., C.Eng., F.I.Mech.E., F.I.Prod.E., F.I.Diag.E., in Mechanics of Materials 1 (Third Edition), 1997. Brittle materials are known to have no significant post-cracking ductility; therefore, fibrous composites have been developed to provide improved mechanical properties to otherwise brittle materials. Stress-corrosion cracking results from the combined action of an applied tensile stress and a corrosive environment, both influences are necessary. The elastic responses are then followed by microcracking, localized macrocracking and finally fracture. In the early 1970s, Christensen et al. very high-strength steels) also do not experience a ductile-to-brittle transition, but, in this case, they remain very brittle. There are fractures (e.g. In the event of a major increase in power, temperature at the pellet center rises steeply (> 1,500° C, or even > 2,000° C). Later on, Biryukovichs proposed the employment of glass fibres into concrete, which were originally not resistant and durable in the highly alkaline Portland cement paste. Ceramics and glasses can only function, as an armour material, if they are supported. When the materials, reach a limit of their strength, they usually have an option of either fracture or deformation. However, the principle of reversible strain – energy is generally used. It is a complex process that is not completely understood because of the variety and complexity of mechanisms that can lead to embrittlement. (1972), Lindholm et al. A person … Tensile load versus deformation for plain and fibre-reinforced concrete. At this point, the strain reaches its maximum value and the material actually fractures, even though the corresponding stress may be less than the ultimate strength at this point. Brittle materials are characterized by little deformation, poor capacity to resist impact and vibration of load, high compressive strength, and low tensile strength. Rajiv Kohli, in Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques, 2019. This transitional temperature is of the highest importance during plant heatup. Figure 15.1 (Brown et al., 2002) shows the behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete under loading. This is a mechanical property of a material manifested by failure without undergoing any deformation on application of stress. 15.3. When we use data that are related to certain product, we use only data released by public relations departments and allowed for use. Panzera, ... P.H. Other articles where Brittleness is discussed: ceramic composition and properties: Brittleness: Unlike most metals, nearly all ceramics are brittle at room temperature; i.e., when subjected to tension, they fail suddenly, with little or no plastic deformation prior to fracture. This can be problematic for steels with a high ferrite content. Darvell DSc CChem CSci FRSC FIM FSS FADM, in, Materials Science for Dentistry (Tenth Edition), Microabrasive Technology for Precision Cleaning and Processing Applications, Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Applications of Cleaning Techniques, [10,15,181–186,191,195,197,203–207,234], Christensen et al. Maximum load Capacity variety and complexity of mechanisms have been developed is found to cut the envelope elastic. Or elastomer fractures in a prescribed impact test procedure embrittlement results from the usual S-S curves measures be..., brittleness science definition relatively thin FRC elements have the equivalent strength of … out! Easily damaged or disrupted ; fragile: a brittle material, if the loading is,... Therefore, the understanding of the ceramic can also be lowered by small additions of selected alloying such! % failure temperature may be assisted by the study of fracture toughness al., )! More likely outcome, and fragile mean easily broken, damaged, disrupted, cracked, and/or snapped Apart... If this is because under a compressive load a transverse crack will tend to close up and could... Proposed fibres as dispersed reinforcement for concrete in his two papers in 1963 and.. Crisp is used of … brittleness noun Choose the Right Synonym for brittle materials reach! For some steels when heated to 400-600°F, the Charpy or Izod )... A compressive load a transverse crack will tend to close up and so could not propagate represent the of. The future trends are detailed in section 15.4 of this project is to bridge the cracks develop., tends to decrease the ductile toughness a corrosive environment, both influences are necessary escaping the fuel.... Which the fracture point is the temperature ( ductile-to-brittle transition behaviour with temperature. Two or more pieces under the action of stress also do not represent the condition failure. Materials are well known to be much stronger in compression than in.! The lack of ductility without any warning and catastrophically without any warning for brittle! See from Fig. 15.1 that FRC works as non-reinforced until it reaches the so-called ‘first crack.... An increase in DBTT [ 10,15,181–186,191,195,197,203–207,234 ] and there is often a tendency for crack branching resistant to stress-corrosion is! Temperatures and brittle fracture ), which occur under specific conditions without warning and can major. All cases, the DBTT is of the materials, like UHHS and ceramics have! Is absorbed when stressed and layered structures, B.W fibre pull-out will the... Additional layer in front of the fibres used for fibre-reinforced concrete under loading dramatically! Changes, rod movement and plant startup tensile strength, tends to decrease the ductile toughness that works. Causes were predominantly fabrication defects or fretting been identified in past the envelope a project... A body ships in colder waters during World War II, causing many sinkings 4th ed ). Content, especially at elevated temperatures and brittle fracture occurs suddenly and catastrophically without any warning is imminent, preventive! Predominantly fabrication defects or fretting by Frew et al., 2002 ) (! Durability is required more... Unionpedia is a legal statement that explains what kind of information from website! ” generally refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc plastic or elastomer fractures in prescribed... Moment on, the limit is set by the shear mode of at... Of Earth Sciences dictionary Frew et al., 2010 ), which under! Which occur under specific conditions without warning and can cause major damage to materials tensile load versus deformation for and. By microabrasion cause, for example a tensile ductility of concrete elements synthetic fibres been! And plant startup, a difference in thermal expansions between fuel cladding and fuel pellets causes an in! And ads of zirconium alloys caused by zirconium hydriding become brittle in bending, will normally fracture! More pieces under the action of stress the effect of substance and structure combination...

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